A tradeoff model for green supply chain planning: A leanness-versus-greenness analysis

Behnam Fahimnia*, Joseph Sarkis, Ali Eshragh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

184 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a tactical supply chain planning model that can be used to investigate tradeoffs between cost and environmental degradation including carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste generation. The proposed model also incorporates other aspects of real world supply chains such as multiple transport lot sizing and flexible holding capacity of warehouses. A solution methodology, the Nested Integrated Cross-Entropy (NICE) method, is developed to solve the proposed mixed-integer nonlinear mathematical model. The application of the model and solution method is investigated in an actual case problem. Analysis of the numerical results focuses on investigating the relationship between lean practices and green outcomes. We find that (1) not all lean interventions at the tactical supply chain planning level result in green benefits, and (2) a flexible supply chain is the greenest and most efficient alternative when compared to strictly lean and centralized situations.

Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalOmega (United Kingdom)
Issue numberJuly
Pages (from-to)173-190
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 07.02.2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • Green supply chain
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Lean
  • Flexible
  • Agile
  • Nonlinear mathematical programming
  • Cross-entropy method
  • Case study


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