Article processing charges for open access publication - the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada

David Solomon, Bo-Christer Björk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question.
Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research
intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We
also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge.
Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment
databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences.
Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid
articles average about 3,000 USD for publications by researchers at research intensive universities. There is a lack of information on discipline differences in APCs due to the concentration of APC funded publications in a few fields and the multidisciplinary nature of research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2264
Peer-reviewed scientific journalPeerJ
Volume4: e2264
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 21.07.2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • 113 Computer and information sciences
  • APC charges
  • APC charges open access
  • Science and Medical Education
  • Science Policy


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