Autonomous vehicle solutions and their digital servitization business models

Seppo Leminen*, Mervi Rajahonka, Robert Wendelin, Mika Westerlund, Anna-Greta Nyström

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Digitalization and automation play essential roles in how companies create value for their customers in emerging industries, including autonomous vehicle solutions (AVSs) and automated driving. In this study, we explore digital servitization business models in the context of AVS ecosystems. We utilize publicly available company data to discuss cases that illustrate the emerging business models of AVSs in the business-to-business (B2B) context. We contribute to research on autonomous solutions by identifying four types of AVSs: (i) advanced-data-assisted solutions, (ii) semiautonomous platooning solutions, (iii) autonomous demarcated solutions, and (iv) autonomous swarmed solutions. We advance digital servitization and business model research by revealing business models associated with those AVSs, namely: (i) safety as a service, (ii) efficiency as a service, (iii) capacity as a service, and (iv) flexibility as a service. By combining these three fields of research, we enrich the digital servitization research and address the current gap in research on autonomous solutions by focusing on business models. Our analysis enables the development of novel conceptual tools for autonomous solutions and servitization driven by digitalization. Moreover, we suggest the concept of business model fluidity to explain rapid and autonomous business model changes and adaptation to different use contexts and customer contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number122070
Peer-reviewed scientific journalTechnological Forecasting and Social Change
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 10.10.2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • autonomous vehicle solutions
  • AVS
  • autonomous solutions
  • digital servitization
  • business model


Dive into the research topics of 'Autonomous vehicle solutions and their digital servitization business models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this