Born globals: Propositions to help advance the theory

Mika Gabrielsson*, V. H.Manek Kirpalani, Pavlos Dimitratos, Carl Arthur Solberg, Antonella Zucchella

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

301 Citations (Scopus)


Although born globals (BGs) have now been studied for over a decade, theory and practice are still evolving. This article was written to clarify the definition of a Born Global (BG) firm and to describe the three phases-introductory, growth and resource accumulation, and break-out to independent growth as a major player-through which BGs progress. Drawing from empirical evidence, it was found that the risks, resource development, channels/networks and organisational learning of BGs develop during the three phases through which successful BGs pass. However, this process deviates considerably from that followed by traditional internationalising small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Born Global entrepreneurs and academics can learn much by studying the causes of these differences.

Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalInternational Business Review
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)385-401
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • Born globals
  • Channels/networks
  • Organisational learning
  • Phases of development
  • Resource development
  • Risks


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