Bringing Nordic Slush to Asia: Entrepreneurial internationalization of an NGO as a social movement

Tamara Galkina*, Man Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


We explore the internationalization of Slush, an entrepreneurship-promoting NGO from Finland that expanded to Japan, China, and Singapore. We incorporate the social movement theory that allows revealing special mechanisms of NGOs’ internationalization. We show, first, that international opportunity development of internationalizing NGOs is triggered by the shared dissatisfaction with societal conditions. Second, their collective resource mobilization enables networks and learning in foreign markets. Third, internationalizing NGOs overcome internationalization liabilities through building their social identities. We also offer a model of NGO internationalization that incorporates the social movement theory. Overall, our study broadens internationalization research by bringing a non-business theory into it.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101749
Peer-reviewed scientific journalInternational Business Review
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 24.08.2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • Finland
  • Internationalization
  • NGOs
  • Social movement theory

Areas of Strength and Areas of High Potential (AoS and AoHP)

  • AoHP: Strategic and entrepreneurial praxis


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