Embodied Land Resources Trade in Major African Countries: A Global Trade and Supply Chains Perspective

Xu Tian, Joseph Sarkis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


Objective: Many countries on the African continent are reliant on land resources for their economic development and international trade. Previous studies reveal that international trade may result in detrimental resource trade balances in terms of “embodied flows” of traded commodities. However, for African countries, such issues remain relatively unexplored from the perspective of international trade. Understanding how some African countries lose or gain embodied land resources through international trade is the focus of this chapter.Methodology: Data from the 2015 Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) model is used to evaluate the various economic and embodied land resources flows. Furthermore, the revised Resources Terms of Trade (RTT) indicator is used to identify embodied (also defined as virtual) land resources’ loss or gain for identical economic international trade values.Key Findings: In general, for every unit of monetary gain from international trade, African countries lose land resources benefits to high-income countries. Yet, African countries do gain land resources from international trade with low-income countries.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAfrica and Sustainable Global Value Chains
EditorsRegina Frei, Sherwat Ibrahim, Temidayo Akenroye
Number of pages17
PublisherSpringer, Cham
Publication date2022
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-78790-5
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-78791-2
Publication statusPublished - 2022
MoE publication typeA3 Book chapter

Publication series

NameGreening of Industry Networks Studies
ISSN (Print)2543-0246
ISSN (Electronic)2543-0254


  • 512 Business and Management
  • African country
  • Economy and resource
  • Global supply chain
  • International trade
  • Virtual land


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