Export performance and international resources and capabilities: A quantitative study on born globals

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This paper aims to investigate the internal factors of resources and capabilities of five born globals (BGs) from Estonia. It explores quantitatively the internal factors between a medium BG and four small BGs.
The study used a survey questionnaire in collecting information from the CEOs of BGs. The questionnaire consisted of 105 questions relevant to export sales related to differences in internal factors.
The firms’ size and industrial sector play a role in export sales due to differences in internal factors. Small BGs expect financially based rewards, non-financial rewards, the job satisfaction of sales representatives with the export manager, and with work in general, and the representatives’ job satisfaction is higher in the small BGs than in the medium BG. The sales representatives’ job performance, their work performance, sales presentations, technical knowledge, adaptiveness, teamwork, planning, support, the organisational capabilities for business identification, relationship-building and innovation are all higher in medium BGs than in small BGs. Eleven sub-constructs of the model were shown to be important for small BGs.
The current study is focused on BGs from Estonia, i.e. small BGs and medium BGs. The study contributes to the internal factors of resources and capabilities of BGs as well as to the literature review on BGs. It also provides a logical conceptual model, indicating that the export manager’s job satisfaction is the central construct influenced by antecedent factors and is related directly to the export sales performance of the BG.
Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalReview of International Business and Strategy
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)264-291
Number of pages27
Publication statusPublished - 23.10.2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • Export sales management
  • Industrial sectors in Estonia
  • Internal factors of resources and capabilities
  • Small BGs and medium BG
  • The outcome of export performance

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