Gold, green and black open access

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)


The debate about open access has until now focused on the gold (journals) versus the green route (manuscript self-archival), as the main alternatives. Recently an even more disruptive form of OA has emerged, in the form of illegal article copies retrievable from academic social networks or pirate sites. This “black open access” provides access to a large part of the pay-walled article output which cannot be found in repositories. While Black OA don’t yet threaten the revenues of major subscription publishers, its rapid emergence is a further symptom of the dysfunctionality of the current subscription system.
Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalLearned Publishing
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)173-175
Publication statusPublished - 07.02.2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 113 Computer and information sciences
  • 512 Business and Management


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