Monetary incentives increase COVID-19 vaccinations

Pol Campos-Mercade, Armando N. Meier, Florian H. Schneider, Stephan Meier, Devin Pope, Erik Wengström

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

149 Citations (Scopus)


Stalling COVID-19 vaccination rates threaten public health. To increase vaccination rates, governments across the globe are considering using monetary incentives. We present evidence on the effect of guaranteed payments on COVID-19 vaccination uptake. We ran a large pre-registered randomized controlled trial (N = 8,286) in Sweden and linked the data to population-wide administrative vaccination records. We found that modest monetary payments of $24 (SEK 200) increased vaccination rates by 4.2 percentage points (p = 0.005), from a baseline rate of 71.6%. In contrast, behavioral nudges increased stated intentions to vaccinate but had only small and not statistically significant impacts on vaccination rates. The results highlight the potential of modest monetary incentives to increase vaccination rates.
Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalScience
Issue number6569
Pages (from-to)879-882
Publication statusPublished - 07.10.2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management


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