Simulation Tool for Winter Navigation Decision Support in the Baltic Sea

Ketki Kulkarni*, Pentti Kujala, Mashrura Musharraf, Ilari Rainio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a novel simulation tool for the analysis of winter navigation operations in the Baltic Sea in the context of the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System (FSWNS). The aim of the tool is to simulate the performance of the FSWNS under various potential future operating scenarios and thereby support decision making in matters affecting the operation and development of the FSWNS, for instance, in terms of icebreaking resources and ice class regulations. To this end, the tool considers key performance factors and characteristics of the FSWNS, such as the prevailing ice conditions, the ice-going capability and other technical characteristics of the relevant merchant vessels, the availability of icebreaking resources, and the features of specific icebreaking operations (e.g., convoys). The tool would allow testing of several “what-if” scenarios, answering questions related to optimal engine power for safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly navigation and the optimal scheduling of icebreakers for effective and cost-efficient assistance missions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7568
Peer-reviewed scientific journalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 07.2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
  • agent-based simulation
  • Baltic Sea
  • discrete-event simulation
  • ice-class ships
  • icebreakers
  • maritime transport
  • winter navigation


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