Social presence as a multi-dimensional group construct in 3D virtual environments

Anu Sivunen, Emma Nordbäck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


One of the key challenges of distributed teams is the lack of social presence resulting from multiple work locations. Virtual environments (VEs) have been viewed as a collaboration tool for distributed teams that can enhance social presence via shared collaboration space and avatars. We observed, recorded, and analyzed the VE meetings of a globally distributed team. Data were analyzed through quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Our findings show that in the meetings, social presence was a situational phenomenon that constantly varied in strength. Social presence occurred as either a subgroup or group phenomenon, which at times coexisted at both levels. In particular, 2 of the 3 subdimensions of social presence, psychological involvement and behavioral engagement, were observable in team interaction.

Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalJournal of Computer-Mediated Communication
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)19-36
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 01.01.2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • Avatars
  • Distributed team
  • Social presence
  • Virtual environment
  • Virtual team
  • Virtual world


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