The Lean Startup Framework: Closing the Academic–Practitioner Divide

Dean A. Shepherd*, Marc Gruber

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

148 Citations (Scopus)


The lean startup framework is one of the most popular contributions in the practitioner-oriented entrepreneurship literature. This study seeks to generate new insights into how new ventures are started by describing the five main building blocks of the lean startup framework (business model, validated learning/customer development, minimum viable product, perseverance vs. pivoting, market-opportunity navigation), enriching the framework with existing research findings, and proposing promising research opportunities in a way that reduces the academic−practitioner divide. In so doing, we hope to enhance researchers’ understanding of the startup process; provide knowledge for educators; and, ultimately, improve the startup process for practitioners.

Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalEntrepreneurship: Theory and Practice
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)967-998
Number of pages32
Publication statusPublished - 09.2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 512 Business and Management
  • business models
  • cognition/knowledge/learning
  • opportunity search/discovery
  • start-up


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