Transparent AI? Navigating between rules on trade secrets and access to information

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


AI systems are nowadays employed in ever-increasing areas. This new era of technological development is exciting, but AI applications are also a cause for concern. If tasks that have hitherto normally been undertaken by human beings are now to be taken care of by ever more intelligent autonomous systems, how can we be certain that such functions are performed diligently and safely? Many areas of application of AI systems have also made the tribulations of AI utilization apparent. The EU’s Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) aims to tackle the concerns and challenges related to the utilization of AI, and to develop human-centric, secure, trustworthy, and ethical AI systems for the EU markets. The provisions of the AIA establish a system of compliance assessment that requires AI providers to disclose how high-risk AI systems have been trained and put together. This article will look at the role of disclosure obligations under the provisions of the AIA. The focus is on the tension between obligations to disclose information on the one hand and requirements to protect the trade secrets contained in the technical details of AI on the other. This article will explain how the technical details of AI contain some information that does not qualify for trade secret protection. And even when there are trade secrets, there are exceptions to trade secret protection. Rules to enable access to information form part of the Trade Secrets Directive, but other legislative instruments too enable access and make it necessary to navigate between access and confidentiality.
Original languageEnglish
Peer-reviewed scientific journalIIC International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1013-1043
Number of pages31
Publication statusPublished - 03.05.2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article - refereed


  • 513 Law
  • artificial intelligence
  • transparency
  • trade secrets
  • access to documents
  • fundamental rights
  • public interest

Areas of Strength and Areas of High Potential (AoS and AoHP)

  • AoHP: Digitisation and sustainability in intellectual property


Dive into the research topics of 'Transparent AI? Navigating between rules on trade secrets and access to information'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this