For at least the past two decades, eco-industrial parks (EIPs) have been promoted as policy and commercial instruments for achieving industrial sustainable development. Yet, few EIPs have seen successful operational implementation, especially if they begin as standard industrial parks. Rapid economic growth, commensurate with increasing environmental damage in China, has resulted in officials' further pursuing EIP policy as a significant element of the broader circular economy and ecological modernization efforts, This article examines the barriers for EIP development from industrial park senior manager perspectives. Using resource dependence theory and the resource-based view as theoretical lenses, we investigate the external and internal barriers for EIP development in 51 Chinese industrial parks. A number of barriers are identified and grouped through a factor analysis. Cluster analysis is utilized to help categorize and evaluate the perceived levels of barriers and hardships experienced by various senior officials that manage the EIPs. It is found that few respondents encounter no significant barriers. Barriers related to technological development and capacity building are the most prevalent. These results highlight the relative importance of various activities that may be necessary by policy makers and other stakeholders to overcome the barriers. For example, cooperation in developing technological solutions for EIPs seems to be a major thrust that should be pursued by EIP development stakeholders. Other policy and managerial insights based on the general findings of this study are also presented.
- 512 Företagsekonomi