Dynamic neodymium stocks and flows analysis in China

Tianli Yao, Yong Geng*, Joseph Sarkis, Shijiang Xiao, Ziyan Gao

*Motsvarande författare för detta arbete

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

29 Citeringar (Scopus)


Neodymium is widely used for magnetic materials in electronic devices, electric vehicles and home appliances. China is facing challenges of increased neodymium demand and a lack of neodymium recycling systems. However, few studies focus on neodymium resource utilization in China—a major consumer of this resource. This study traces and forecasts neodymium flows and stocks in China using dynamic material flow analysis from a life cycle perspective. The results show that China's demand for neodymium at the use stage had increased over 20 times during 2000-2017. By contrast, official neodymium production has only doubled, indicating the existence of illegal mining to meet the increasing neodymium demand. Also, the total net neodymium exports have continuously decreased due to reduced export of primary products and intermediate products. In addition, smuggling of primary products remains an issue and needs to be eliminated. Wind turbines and electric vehicles will become major neodymium consumption sectors greatly increasing future demand requirements. To avoid insufficient recycling and illegal neodymium mining, more appropriate neodymium management policies should be released to balance neodymium supply and demand.
Referentgranskad vetenskaplig tidskriftResources, Conservation and Recycling
Antal sidor11
StatusPublicerad - 05.07.2021
MoE-publikationstypA1 Originalartikel i en vetenskaplig tidskrift


  • 512 Företagsekonomi

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