How to design gamification? A method for engineering gamified software

Benedikt Morschheuser, Lobna Hassan, Karl Werder, Juho Hamari

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

107 Citeringar (Scopus)

Sammanfattning

Context

Since its inception around 2010, gamification has become one of the top technology and software trends. However, gamification has also been regarded as one of the most challenging areas of software engineering. Beyond traditional software design requirements, designing gamification requires the command of disciplines such as (motivational/behavioral) psychology, game design, and narratology, making the development of gamified software a challenge for traditional software developers. Gamification software inhabits a finely tuned niche of software engineering that seeks for both high functionality and engagement; beyond technical flawlessness, gamification has to motivate and affect users. Consequently, it has also been projected that most gamified software is doomed to fail.


Objective

This paper seeks to advance the understanding of designing gamification and to provide a comprehensive method for developing gamified software.


Method

We approach the research problem via a design science research approach; firstly, by synthesizing the current body of literature on gamification design methods and by interviewing 25 gamification experts, producing a comprehensive list of design principles for developing gamified software. Secondly, and more importantly, we develop a detailed method for engineering of gamified software based on the gathered knowledge and design principles. Finally, we conduct an evaluation of the artifacts via interviews of ten gamification experts and implementation of the engineering method in a gamification project.


Results

As results of the study, we present the method and key design principles for engineering gamified software. Based on the empirical and expert evaluation, the developed method was deemed as comprehensive, implementable, complete, and useful. We deliver a comprehensive overview of gamification guidelines and shed novel insights into the nature of gamification development and design discourse.


Conclusion

This paper takes first steps towards a comprehensive method for gamified software engineering.
OriginalspråkEngelska
Referentgranskad vetenskaplig tidskriftInformation and Software Technology
Volym95
UtgåvaMarch
Sidor (från-till)219-237
Antal sidor19
ISSN0950-5849
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 28.10.2017
MoE-publikationstypA1 Originalartikel i en vetenskaplig tidskrift

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